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Tuesday, September 29, 2015

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

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Common coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so, either…or, neither…nor. Coordinating conjunctions generally connect words or phrases of the same grammatical class. For example, a coordinating conjunction connects nouns with nouns, adverbs with adverbs or clauses with clauses. It cannot connect a noun with a verb or an adjective.
  • Jack and Jill went up the hill. (Here the coordinating conjunction ‘and’ connects the two nouns – Jack and Jill.)
  • He worked patiently and diligently. (Here ‘and’ connects the two adverbs patiently and diligently.)
Kinds of coordinating conjunctions
There are different types of coordinating conjunctions:
Cumulative or copulative conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions which merely add one clause to another are called cumulative or copulative conjunctions. Examples are:and, both…and, as well as, not only…but also.
  • He mounted the horse and rode off.
  • She is both pretty and intelligent.
  • Tom as well as John passed the test.
  • He was not only praised but also rewarded.
Adversative conjunctions
Some coordinating conjunctions are used to connect opposing or contrasting ideas or statements. They are called adversative conjunctions. Examples are: but, still, yet, whereas, while, nevertheless etc.
  • He is rich but he is unhappy.
  • He is poor yet he is happy.
Disjunctive or alternative conjunctions
Some coordinating conjunctions present two alternatives sometimes indicating a choice between them. Examples are: or, either…or, neither…nor, neither, nor etc.
  • You can have coffee or tea. (You can’t have them both.)
  • He neither wrote nor called.
  • He does not drink, neither does he smoke.
Illative conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions which express an inference are called illative conjunctions. Examples are: for, so.
  • He has been working for hours, so he must be tired.
Correlative conjunctions
Some conjunctions are used in pairs. They are called correlative conjunctions. Most correlative conjunctions are considered as coordinating conjunctions.

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